Diamonds Were Forever

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The Great Western Railway had, since its inception been the loner amongst the rai1ways of this country. Beginning with its adoption of Brunel’s broad gauge in the early nineteenth century, this tradition of individuality was carried on beyond the nationalisation of the railways in 1948 to the introduction on the Western Region ten years later of he first main-line diesel hydraulic locomotives. Ostensibly the idea was to assess the relative merits and demerits of the hydraulic transmission as compared with the electric variety. The diesel types with hydraulic transmission were restricted entirely to the Western Region; perhaps the ghost of Brunel and his advocates had something to do with this! Nevertheless, with the implementation of the National Traction Plan in 1967, the D600 class “Warships” days were numbered. But they deserve their place in the story of diesel traction on Britain’s railways, marking as they do, a milestone in the history of motive power development in this country.

D600 on test run - no number

Brand new, straight out of the box – an unnumbered “Warship” on a proving run from the North British Loco Co works.

Five locomotives of this type were ordered from the North British Locomotive Company in November 1955, eventually to become Western Region “Warships” numbers D600 to D604. These locomotives were built under the pilot scheme of the British Transport Commission’s Modernisation and Re-equipment programme for the rai1ways. It was proposed under this scheme to introduce specific types of diesel locomotives in four broad power groups, and to subject them to a period of intensive trials in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each type.

This was, however, not to be, and shortly after the programme was launched a re-appraisal was carried out, following which, bulk orders were placed with contractors, in many cases hardly even before the first of the prototypes were outshopped. Some of these proved their worth, but not until after much re-work of major components, including for the many engines fitted to the Brush-Sulzer Type 4 locomotives was undertaken.

Back to the Pilot Scheme orders, the North British Company delivered the first locomotive of the D600 class in 1958.  These “Warship” class locomotives were powered by Anglo-German engines – two N.B.L./M.A.N. L12V 18/21S to be precise – each with a continuous output rating of 1000hp, at an engine speed of 1445 rpm. This placed the design in the category of locomotives with high-speed engines – another area for comparison and trials under the Pilot scheme – with many others sporting medium speed engines.

They were carried in a full width body over two three-axle bogies, and the central axle of each bogie was ‘free, with the engines driving the axles through a Voith/North British L306R hydraulic transmission. This was denoted as the A1A-A1A wheel arrangement, which could to a degree be seen as a disadvantage when it came to getting sufficient power to the wheels to start and haul a train.

When I first penned this article, I wrote:

“Contrary to popular opinion, diesel locomotives are not merely tin boxes on wheels, belching forth voluminous clouds of noxious fumes; these locomotives even had mainframes!”

The mainframe part of that comment was clearly true, but with the benefit of hindsight, the “clouds of noxious fumes” was a bit much. But this was at a time when you could see the pollution of steam trains, but we were yet to become more aware of the hidden dangers of the diesel exhaust.

D600 diagramStructural Details

The underframe was built up from mild steel plate and sections, covered with steel plate forming a continuous floor. The double plate frame 
bogies were fabricated from 7/16 in. thick plates, with cross-stretchers
and headstocks riveted to the side members. Double swing link bolsters provided support for the weight of the whole of the locomotive and
its contents. These were in turn fitted with four bearing pads on each bogie, with the final drive gear train, and wheels and axles fitted with “Timken” roller bearing axleboxes with a wheelbase of 15ft equally divided. The driven wheels were 3ft.7ins. in diameter, whilst the centre pair were 3ft. 3 ½ ins.

Dimensions

At least one item that stands out in the list of particulars given is the weight of the locomotive.

At over 117 tons, these were really heavy machines, especially when compared with designs that appeared less than a decade later, and typically delivered around 2800 h p, for less than 100 tons of locomotive. This power-weight challenge faced by the first “Warships” stands out even more when compared with the D800 series of Locomotives, which for the same power weighed a mere
 78 tons. Nearly 40 tons less! The D600’ s were certainly very solidly bui1t!

D600 NBL-MAN Engine

The NBL/MAN V12 engine on a stand, waiting to be installed in the locomotive. One of the earliest high-speed diesels, but it did prove to be less reliable in service than hoped, and BR had adopted medium speed designs for the majority of locomotives.

Theory has it (or possibly had it, theories may have changed!) that the less
 of its own weight a locomotive has to haul, the greater the weight of the train that can be hauled, for the same engine power. With a power/weight ratio of 17.1 hp/ton this certainly compares unfavourably with the D800 series, which for the same power had a power/weight ratio of slightly more than
 25.6 hp/ton. A further comparison with the most recent freight locomotives in use on Britain’s rail network – the Class 70 – shows that they have a power to weight ratio of over 29hp/ton.

The pressure charged NBL/MAN 12 cylinder ‘vee’ engines were flexibly mounted on fabricated steel section underframes, which was intended to mitigate stress placed on the engine from shock loading under accelerating and braking conditions. The engine crankcase and cylinder blocks were built up from steel plate, the former incorporating cast steel bulkheads carrying the main bearing housings, the crankshafts being hardened and ground alloy steel forgings.

D600 bogie

A bogie being assembled in the works of the North British Loco Co

The hydraulic transmission installed by Voith/NBL included three separate torque converters, each of which was designed to cover three separate speed ranges, with each one arranged to take over at the appropriate road speed automatically.  The final drive to the outer axles on each bogie was completed through a pair of Hardy Spicer cardan shafts.

Braking equipment was provided by Westinghouse air brakes for the locomotive, with four brake cylinders (10ins x 8ins) on each bogie operating clasp brakes to each wheel. A separate air brake handle was provided, which operated the locomotive brakes only, whilst a proportional valve ensured that application of the train vacuum brake gave a proportionate application of the locomotive’s air brake.

Also noted in the list of particulars is a water tank having a capacity for 1000 gallons of water. The reason for this was that since the locomotive were introduced at a time when only steam heating of locomotive hauled stock was available, all diesel Locomotives designed under the modernisation plan were provided with steam heating boilers. In this case they were “Spanner” boilers, operating at a pressure of 80lbs/sq.in. This latter item contributed a great deal to early diesel types weight, and occupied a not inconsiderable amount of space.

D600 Cab and nose

In an attempt to reduce the overall weight, the cab and nose of the “Warships” was constructed from lightweight aluminium sheet and sections.

Another feature that added greatly to the weight, particularly in this case, was the use of heavy steel fabricated construction techniques. The British Transport Commission’s insistence on using thicker plate than necessary was the principal reason for using these techniques, resulting in a sturdy but unnecessarily heavy structure. This was also the first product from the North British Loco. Co. for the home market, other than shunting types previously built. As such, no doubt there was some experimentation in the design of such a totally new locomotive type to the British railway scene.

External design was left to the manufacturer, and as a result the locomotive types produced under the ‘Pilot Scheme’ all differed in appearance, and unlike the range of ‘Standard’ steam locomotives there was no ‘family likeness’. The D600 series ‘Warships’ were perhaps one of the more attractive designs. The stressed skin framework of the bodysides was punctuated with a honeycomb of grilles, covering the various vents 
and air intake points.

NBL Advert

NBL’s advert in the 1958/59 railway official’s directory, with the D600 series shown in the top sketch.

In addition to the doors providing entry to the driving cabs at either end, windowed access doors were provided
adjacent to the engine compartments, and sections of the roof were made detachable for installation and removal of equipment. The cabs themselves were provided with two large flat windscreens, each having independently operated wipers.

It should be noted here that the majority of diesel types introduced at that time had three windscreens. In fact, apart from the ‘Deltics’, the twin windscreen arrangement was for a long time restricted entirely to the Western Region’s diesel-hydraulics. Another feature peculiar to the ‘Pilot Scheme’ types, was the provision in each nose end of a flexible bellows connection, for use when through passage was required between locomotives when worked in multiple.

Two fans mounted in the roof were arranged to draw cooling air through the twin bank ‘Serck’ radiators mounted just to the rear of each cab. A third grille, positioned mid-way along the roof, served as an engine room vent. The only other apertures were the exhaust outlets, and the output from the ‘Napier’ pressure charger.

Since the train classification headcode panels were not introduced until I962, these “Warships” were provided with train classification discs, and head/tail lamp brackets, as per the then standard steam traction practice. Twin air-operated warning horns were provided in each nose end. Standard side buffers and screw coupling draw-gear were also fitted at each end. Other nose connections were provided for vacuum brake and steam heating pipes, and jumper sockets for control connections when worked in multiple.

Numbering and livery

This series of locomotives, as already mentioned, was ordered from the North British Locomotive Co. at the time of introduction of the re-equipment programme, on I6th November I955. Delivery was due to take place fifteen months after the order was placed, which should have been completed by late I957. As often happened, delays in delivery caused their introduction to be put back to 1958.

A list of numbers, names and building dates is given below:

Numbers & Names

Livery styles for British Railways diesel locomotive Livery
prior to I956 followed basically that scheme applied to the former LMSR diesel-electric units 10000/10001 – black with aluminium lining and raised numerals. Bogie sideframes and sundry details were also picked out in aluminium. Commensurate perhaps with the new era about to begin, all new diesel locomotives were turned out in the new ‘standard’ green livery. This was applied to the nose, body side panels, and that section of the roof extending over each cab and the entrance doors. The roof was medium grey between cantrails. The bogie and underframe details were black, with buffer stocks and the beam itself in the vicinity of the coupling hook picked out in red.   Handrails and the aluminium beadings to the cab windows, windscreens and warning horn mountings were bright polished. Nameplates and the new style B.R. crests were carried on the lower and upper bodysides respectively, and on the same centreline between the engine room access doors on either side. The nameplates themselves were similar to ex GWR locomotive nameplates; cast in brass with raised lettering on a red background.

NRM_D601_Ark_Royal_nameplate

The nameplate of D601 Ark Royal on display at the National Railway Museum. This was the original style, but if a member of the class was painted ‘Rail Blue’, the background was changed to black.            Photo: Geof Sheppard – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9680512

The scheme of numbering diesel locomotives introduced at this time, including the use of the prefix ‘D’, was developed in order to avoid any confusion which might have arisen using six figure unit numbers. Also it was considered desirable to allocate a block of numbers to individual classes or types, and the problems were thus overcome by use of the ‘D’ prefix. The unit numbers for the D600 series were Gill San transfers applied to the cabsides, under each of the four droplights. Directly under each number, were the North British works plates, and the WR route restriction colour discs, which in this case were single red. They were of course already scrapped when British Rail introduced the TOPS renumbering, which had been first been considered by BR in 1968, following work done in the USA by IBM and the Southern Pacific Railroad. The system was purchased by BR – including the source code – together with an IBM System 360 mainframe computer, and its implementation was supported by Southern Pacific personnel.

Lens of Sutton D600 'Warship'

D600 “Active” on one of the class’s main roles, hauling expresses over the South Devon Banks. A key service for a short time was the “Cornish Riviera Express”.                           Photo: Lens of Sutton/RPBradley Collection

The oddest aspect for the North British Warships was perhaps that they were allocated the new classification – Class 41 – but which was never carried.

In later years, ½ and full height yellow warning panels were applied, which did nothing for their appearance, and the same might be said of the ubiquitous ‘Rail Blue’ livery, and the double arrow symbol seen on D600 whilst awaiting the breakers torch at Barry. Headcode boxes had also been fitted in their mid to late years, since in 1960, the train class, route and reporting number were combined into a single four character display. So, the old style discs were dispensed with and all new locos built after that were fitted with a roller-blind display that could display the full reporting number. Of course this meant for some – such as the North British “Warships” a pair of two character boxes were fitted to either side of the loco front.

Performance


These locomotives were the first 2000hp main line types to be placed in service on the Western Region, and were intended for express Passenger and other top link duties. A demonstration run on Monday I7th February I958 was made by No.D600, hauling a nine coach train from Paddington to Bristol and back. It is interesting to note, in connection with this run, that in order to demonstrate the locomotive’s ability, on the return journey from Bristol, soon after leaving, one of the engines
was shut down, and the remainder of the trip completed on a single engine.

The first regular top link passenger work for the class commenced in June I958, with the ‘Cornish Riviera’ express. Also during this month, a series of comparative tests was made, with the second of the class D60I, and various classes of 4-6-0 steam locomotives. The trials took place between Newton Abbot and Plymouth. It was thought that summer Saturday services in particular would need piloting over this route, and since there would not be enough diesel locomotives available double heading trials were carried out with steam locomotives in order to determine optimum loads and timings over this route. Unfortunately for the North British “Warships”, the D8XX series Swindon “Warships” was appearing in ever increasing numbers.

EPSON scanner image

‘Warship’ Diesel-hydraulic at Reading (General) on an Up express, looking west towards Reading West Junction, Swindon, Bristol, Taunton and the West; ex-Great Western main lines from Paddington. The train, running through on the Up Slow line, is the Summer 08.15 Perranporth – Paddington, headed by 2,000 hp Type 4 A1A-A1A ‘Warship’ No. D600 ‘Active’                                     Photo: Ben Brooksbank, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15149523

This fact, coupled with somewhat varied standards of engine performance, notwithstanding a lack of confidence by maintenance staff in their reliability, gradually forced this class out of the principal duties. The overall performance of the first two, D600-1 was rather better than D602-4. This difference has been attributed largely to the fact that the engines for the first two were actually built in Germany, whereas North British made those for D602-4 under licence. No doubt, there is more than an element of truth in that statement, but perhaps it could also explain the reason for the long gap between the delivery of D600/1, and D602-4.

North_British_Type_4_D601_(8392564224)

A sad end for this pioneering class of diesel locomotives – here D601 “Ark Royal”, and an unidentified sister, are seen at Woodham’s Barry scrapyard in October 1968. The second loco is in rail blue, complete with full yellow ends, and the double arrow symbol, whilst D601 still retains green livery and ½ height warning panels. Both have been transformed with the roller blind headcode boxes stuck to the nose.                                                                 Photo: Hugh Llewelyn – D601Uploaded by Oxyman, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=24382933

All five were based for the most part, at Plymouth Laira
 depot, and in their latter years restricted entirely to Cornwall. In 1967 their demise was foreshadowed by the implementation of the National Traction Plan. With this scheme, it was proposed to ‘phase out’ classes of locomotive coming under one of the following three headings:

  1. Elimination of types that had given trouble
  2. Those having excessive maintenance cost
  3. Those classes of low numerical strength

Once again, unfortunately these “Warships” came under all three headings. In 1967 they were transferred to South Wales for a short time, working mineral trains, in place of English Electric type 3’s. This proved to be their final duty, since they were returned to Laira in December 1967 for withdrawal. In July 1968, after being stored for seven months, D600/1 were sold to Woodhams, of Barry and D602-4 to Cashmeres at Newport for scrap.

Sadly, despite its pioneering status, not one of this class of diesel-hydraulic locomotives was rescued for preservation – although the nameplate of D601 “Ark Royal” survives in the NRM at York. But, hydraulic transmission was not a complete failure for BR, since the second “Warship” class locomotives, the Class 42, were very successful, and in turn, they were followed by a final design, the Class 52 “Western” series. But by the time these appeared, the decision to use diesels engines with electric transmission had been made, and these too were to suffer a similar fate to the diesel-hydraulic pioneers.

Useful Links & References

  • “Diesel-Hydraulic Locomotives of the Western Region”;  Brian Reed, pub; David & Charles 1974; ISBN 0715367692
  • “Diesels Western Style”;  Keith Montague; Pub; Oxford Pub. Co. 1974; ISBN 0902888390
  • “Giants of Steam – Story of the North British Locomotive Co.”;  Rodger Bradley; Pub; Oxford Pub. Co., 1995; ISBN; 0860935051

 

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BR Regional Magazines

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I was fortunate to have a Grandfather who drove steam engines, right through from pre-Grouping to British Railways days, and was the beneficiary of numerous copies of the BR London Midland Region magazine – avidly read when I was on holiday.  Obviously, many of the stories related to people, locations, and some new technology developments – locomotives, new stations, new lines, and a gardening section.

Each area, and region of course had their own sports teams, first aid teams, amateur dramatics sections, and individuals who had built models from matchsticks, or replicas of main line steam locomotives in miniature.  There were the retirements, and trbutes to the people who built and ran the railways in the past, and those who worked on the permanent way, maintaining its safety, and keeping the trains running.  The extent and variety of activities and events reported were enormous, with reflections on the past in equal measure to the changes then taking place.

One interesting series of items that appeared in the 1950s was John Drayton’s  “Illustrated Rules”, which took specific rules, and with the aid of a cartoon illustration provided a simplified explanation of how they were applied.  Sometimes they were very serious, and sometimes the cartoon might show some of those railwaymen who knew it was OK to hang off the footsteps on a moving loco – like this one:

Drayton0015

Rule 118 in the 1950 rule book does indeed state:

“Staff riding on engines or vehicles, or when on the ground alongside vehicles, at converging points in sidings, must take special care that there is sufficient clearance for their safety”

Or this one about the emission of smoke and steam from engines – Rule 126 (v):

“arrange the fire so as to avoid any unnecessary emission of smoke particularly whilst standing at or passing stations, and prevent blowing off steam at safety valves as far as possible”

Drayton0018

 

But not everything John Drayton sketched was about the rule book, he offered some interesting drawings about new technology too:

Drayton0035Drayton0036Drayton0037

Of course, the LM Region Magazine covered new loco builds – like this one – the Crosti boilered 9F 2-10-0s, which were very much a non-standard design of British Railways Standard steam locomotive designs.  This was the story the magazine carried in July 1955 of the Crewe built locomotives.

Franco-Crosti

I’ll post some more of John Drayton’s sketches, and others in future posts.

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The Last British Diesel

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It may be a controversial observation, but the Brush designed Class 60 heavy freight locomotive was the last genuinely British built diesel-electric type. The locomotive was considered initially as a replacement for English Electric’s ageing Class 37 design – but with British Rail sectorisation, and the changed Railfreight priorities, a different approach was needed.

60_015_Bow_Fell

60015 Bow Fell in Railfreight grey livery with Transrail branding hauling a freight train through Cardiff General in 1996.         Photo: Murgatroyd49 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=78385895 

In the late 1980s, a private company, contracted to haul mineral trains ordered and brought to the UK, the 2-stroke General Motors Class 59 – it was of course Foster Yeoman. The design and operation of this locomotive was a success, but it was for a niche market, although it brought some innovative ideas in its use of technology.

Before their arrival, BR had produced its main line locomotive renewal programme, within which it was stated that 750 new freight diesels would be needed of between 750 and 2,500hp, with delivery from 1990 onwards. BR also stated it would not place orders of less than 100 locos at a time, to ensure continuity of production, and rolling replacement of older designs.

Class_60_Beeston

Class 60 passing through Beeston station in April 2007.                                                                 Photo: Zverzia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3063590

Unlike the Class 58, BR’s last heavy haul locomotive design returned to the Brush monocoque, load bearing mechanical structure – this was the company’s ‘traditional’ approach – where the Class 58 was essentially a couple of longitudinal girders with a body and power equipment ‘on deck’.

Nottingham_-_DB_Cargo_60100_with_oil_tanks

A train of empty oil tanks heads through Nottingham in 2016 behind the last of the class No. 60100, in DB Schenker / DB Cargo colours. They are on the way from Kingsbury in the West Midlands to an oil refinery on Humberside.         Photo: Geof Sheppard – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=53982372

Consultants Jones Garrard, who had been involved with the styling of the class 442 “Wessex Electrics”, undertook the design of the class 60, and provided a couple of alternatives. Mock-ups were provided of both varieties, inspected by Railfreight personnel and the B.R. Design Panel, and after deliberation, the style with a positive rake to the front end was chosen. The end result was a locomotive who’s appearance bore more than a passing resemblance to the ubiquitous Brush Type 4 / BR Class 47.

This was Britain’s last truly home produced – designed and built – diesel locomotive design, and represents a fitting end to the British Rail freight chapter.

Useful Links & References:

  • Railway Industry Association (RIA)
  • DB Cargo UK
  • GB Railfreight
  • DC Rail
  • “True Brit – Class 60 in Close Up” by Roger Ford (Modern Railways – March 1989)
  • Rail Freight (House of Commons Library Briefing Paper) Number SN151, 12 December 2016; By Louise Butcher
  • Railways: privatisation, 1987-1996 (House of Commons Library Briefing Note) SN/BT/1157
18 March 2010
; By Louise Butcher

Class 60 Videos

Click on the image below for more …..

Class 60 Cover

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60 Years of AC Electrics

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60 years ago on the 27th Nov
ember 1959, Britain’s pioneer 25Kv A.C. electric locomotive was officially handed over to British Railways. Then numbered E3001, it 
was to be the first of a long series of successful 
locomotive designs for the West Coast Main
Line (WCML). Within this series there have
 come to be seven basic designs, and a number of sub-divisions of the classes ALl to AL7. Although the last of these was never actually
 introduced under the old title of AL7, but
 designated Class 87 with the new “TOPS”
 locomotive codes, the family likeness remains
 very strong despite the detail alterations to the appearance of the latest type.

AEI_4Under the Modernisation Plan proposals it was decided that two types of locomotive – ‘A’ and ‘B’ – would be required. These were for mixed traffic, and freight service, respectively, with an equal number of both types needed, with their different haulage characteristics. This was not how things turned out, with the slower progress in the adoption of continuous brakes on freight trains, only five of the first 100 locomotives were type ‘B’, freight types. Metropolitan Vickers and BTH (as AEI), and English Electric were the builders of this entirely new breed of motive power, with mechanical portions of some constructed at BR’s Doncaster Works, and the North British Loco Co., in Glasgow.

86433 and 87034 at Carlisle 1980sIn 30 years, the UK railway industry, together with British Rail’s workshops had provided innovation, specialist technical, design and manufacturing skills that delivered the high-speed rail network, with the East and West Coast Main Line routes as their backbone.

91005 passing Carstairs 1995“Electra” was in effect the final gestation of the first, second and third-generation a.c. locomotive designs to be operated by British Rail, and whilst the ultimate high-speed passenger train, the APT never materialised, it did give rise to the “Pendolino” tilting trains.

Click on the image below for a longer read ….

60 Year cover image

Useful Links

Wikipedia Pages:

Class 80 Class 81 Class 82
Class 83 Class 84 Class 85
Class 86 Class 87 Class 89
Class 90 Class 91

General Information

The AC Electric Locomotive Group English Electric Co. – Grace’s Guide
Class 90 Electric Loco Group Metro-Cammell Ltd
Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) – Grace’s Guide British Rail Engineering Ltd – Science Museum

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Britannia Rules The Rails

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Sometimes, it just has to be done.  Back in 1951, British Railways unveiled its brand new steam locomotive, at the same time as the Festival of Britain was showcasing the country’s capabilities, and the author also appeared!  This class of steam locomotive broke many of the traditional design and building rules of the old ‘Big Four’ companies, and these were especially noticeable in its appearance.

Light_engine_(3319833486)

The now preserved 70013 Oliver Cromwell heading light engine backwards to Cardiff to get coal and water.                       Photo: Ben Salter CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=22446886

Gone were the days of hiding the workings away from public gaze – and the dificulties faced by crew and maintenance fitters in day to day oiling and repairs.  These were intended to be the most efficient, modernising locomotives, and brught together the best aspects of railway engineering that the UK could muster.  At least that was the plan.

“The object of the designer has been to make these standard engines easy to build, easy to maintain, and easy to repair. Many of the parts and fittings are interchangeable between the six types being built in 1951 so that spares tall be kept to a minimum.”

As a classic design, the BR Standard Britannia pacific was the pinnacle of steam locomotive development in Britain. At least, that argument could be held true for the mixed traffic design. Clearly, in other more specialist categories – express passenger, freight, etc. – the argument may be much more tenuous. Quite apart from statements from the Railway Executive in 1951, the new standard range of locomotives for British Railways embodied many of the most up to date characteristics of 20th century British locomotive design. In truth, it also sought to include some rather more international features, especially some aspects that were derived from Continental European and North American practices.

Click on the image below to read on:

Booklet cover

Read on ….

Some useful & interesting links

BRSTD - web page

http://www.iconsofsteam.com/locos/britannia/story/

http://www.royalscot.org.uk – preserved locomotive 70000 “Britannia”

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North American Steam

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As is well known, steam power was invented and developed in Britain country for both stationary and locomotive purposes. Its introduction and use in the United States very likely came about as a result of illegal activity here in England. At around the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, it was deemed an offence by ·the government of the day to transmit any information about the development or use of steam power to North America. In fact it was punishable by a one-year prison sentence in addition to a £200 fine! But, evidently news of James Watt’s success was transported across the Atlantic it would appear that industrial espionage is not a modern phenomena!

The first practical use of steam power, as applied to railways, in the USA, was first witnessed in the shape of locomotives imported from England by the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co., which operated a sixteen-mile horse and gravity operated coal railway in Pennsylvania. The first steam locomotive to run in the USA was in fact the English built “Stourbridge Lion”.

Replica Stourbridge Lion - United_States_National_Museum_(1956)_(14781532311)

A replica of the first steam loco to run in the USA – built in 1932 by the Delaware & Hudson Corp.   Photo: Internet Archive Book Images https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=43475790 

Best friend

Built at West Point Foundry, the “Best Friend of Charleston” was the first home built steam loco for a US railroad. Photo courtesy Norfolk Southern Corp.

The first American built locomotive to be operated by an American railroad, was built at the West Point Foundry in 1830 and made its inaugural run for the South Carolina Canal and Railroad Co. of Charleston, on Christmas Day 1830. The locomotive was appropriately named the “Best Friend Of Charleston”. In appearance it hardly resembled a steam locomotive as we know it at all, powered by a vertical boiler positioned behind the driver, driving four coupled wheels it was not entirely dissimilar to the rather less successful “Novelty” locomotive, entered for the Rainhill Trials in England the previous year. But, it was a beginning, from which the North American steam locomotive was developed, ultimately to produce some of the World’s largest and most powerful steam locomotives ever to be built.
 In the early years of railway development, steam locomotive design in the USA progressed along similar lines to that of their European counterparts.

But then, there came to be a number of what at first could be seen as small, technical differences, providing a divergent path along which North American loco. design progressed. One of the principal foundations to this alternative to the British school of design, was the predominant use of bar frames as the principal technique of chassis construction, whereas in Britain, plate frames were the preferred method. Although bar frame techniques were actually first Introduced in the U.K. by Edward Bury, their development in the USA resulted ultimately in the use of techniques for manufacturing the chassis or frames of steam locomotives as enormous one piece castings. In many cases with cylinders and ancillary items of equipment ”cast on”. Style, an arbitrary idea in itself, was possibly the one most obvious difference between North American and British types.

North American 2 copy

The first cantilever trestle bridge in the USA, carrying the Cincinatti Southern Railroad across the Kentucky River, with a typical passenger train of the period. The “High Bridge” was opened in 1877, and rebuilt in 1911 – this view is of the original bridge. Photo courtesy Norfolk Southern Corp./RPB Collection.

Whereas in this country designers placed great emphasis on the aesthetic appeal of their machines, the era of elaborate ostentation in the USA reached a peak in the 1860s and. 70s. These then gave way to more logical concepts of the steam locomotive as a machine, where it was not a sin to trail pipework and fittings
 on the outside of the locomotive, making the working parts more accessible and maintenance infinitely easier.

CP_steam_loco

A recreated Central Pacific # 60 steam locomotive at the Golden Spike National Historic Site in Utah          Photo: Mr Snrub at English Wikipedia. – Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3488328

To many of us though, thinking of nineteenth century design in the USA, immediately there comes to mind the wood burning 4-4-0 types, replete with ‘cowcatchers’, ornate bell and enormous chimneys. (Diamond stacks as they were known.) These locomotives were a tradition, if not a legend of North American railroads, and engendered a folklore and many legends of their own., from ‘Casey Jones’ to the ‘General’. The latter, in particular, having quite an entertaining history, culminating in its seizure by Union forces during the Civil War. The elaborate ornamentation of some of those mid-nineteenth century designs achieved well nigh indescribable levels, with gold plated scrollwork and paintwork and lining schemes that would have done justice to any regal palace!

By 20th century standards such locomotives were small, yet it’ was with just such engines as these that the vast mid-west and western seaboards of the USA were penetrated. Possibly the most outstanding achievement being the linking by rail of both east and west coasts at Promontory, Utah on May 10th 1869.

Alabama Southern 4-6-0 - 1905

Typical of US motive power at the beginning of the 20th century was this 4-6-0 on the Alabama Southern Railroad in 1905.    Photo by: By Internet Archive Book Images. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=43245503

The locomotives of the Central and Union Pacific Railroads were brought
 to within feet of each other and the ceremony completed by driving in a golden spike. From this point, railroading in the USA entered a period of explosive growth, as the government endeavoured to foster settlement of the West. New routes and companies sprang into existence, almost on a par with the ”Railway Mania” period in this country. In terms of Locomotive design though, there the resemblance ended. Railway companies in this country, for the major part, relied on their own designs, whether built in their own workshops, or by contractors. In the USA however, contractors to a much greater extent were relied upon to produce the designs as well as constructing the engines.

There emerged the idea that locomotive manufacturers as specialists in design and construction of steam locomotives would develop their own ranges of ‘standard’ designs, to be bought virtually, “off the peg”. Naturally there were exceptions, though in the sphere of technical development, the manufacturers were often first in the field. This approach was not unknown in this country, but developed to a much greater extent in the USA. A resultant feature being that whereas here it is traditional to refer to a class of locomotive by its owner and designer; in the USA it is almost invariably that of the manufacturer. The names of which were virtually household in this country also; Baldwin, Lima, Alco, etc. Many of these companies’ products were owned by almost all railroads, where the manufacturer, being a specialist, designer and builder, could supply in greater numbers than could the railroads, who were left free to concentrate on the business of carrying passengers and freight.

In the early years of the 20th Century, locomotive design in the USA was moving towards progressively larger types, with which, ultimately, that country became world famous. Its largest locomotives though, owed their development to a French engineer. These were enormous articulated designs, capable of hauling the heaviest of loads, and often in many cases, their tenders alone were larger then the largest British Pacific locomotives, indeed, particularly with the articulated types of the Union Pacific and Norfolk &Western Railroads, even the fireboxes could be bigger than an average living room.

AAR 7 copy

A picture to evoke nostalgic memories of steam, as a pair of Northern Pacific’s giant Mallet articulated locomotives stand in the yards at Missoula, Montana, and ready to handle the huge transcontinental freight working. Photo courtesy; Association of American Railroads.

The most popular form of articulation in N. America was the Mallet arrangement, whose originator was the French engineer M. Anatole Mallet. Basically it consisted of two separate chassis supplied by a single boiler, the leading chassis being pivoted about, the rear. Principle wheel arrangements of this design were of the order of 2-8-8-2, 4-6-6-4etc. Although originally designed to make use of compounding arrangements, most of the N. American types were simple expansion machines, Such locomotives were designed primarily for heavy freight haulage, although on the Union Pacific, a smaller version of the enormous 4-8-8-4
 “Big Boy”, albeit a not much smaller 4-6-6-4 type, was intended for fast, long distance passenger turns. (Long distance on the Union Pacific, was the 5000 odd miles between San Francisco and Chicago). Many railroads in the USA used the articulated types, but there were of course some quite remarkable exceptions. Notably, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, whose rigid frame 4-4-4-4 and 4-4-6-4 locomotives, known forever as Duplexii, were of comparable proportions to the articulated types. Built during the “Streamline Era” and sporting an air smoothed casing, these were really spectacular designs.

C&O Class K4 at Chief_Logan_State_Park_-_C&O_2755

C&O Class K4 at Chief_Logan_State_Park, as preserved at Logan, West Virginia. 92 of this 2-8-4 design were built for C&O, where they were known as the “Kanawha” type, and although a number of other railroads operated them, they were also referred to as the “Berkshire” type.     Photo By Brian M. Powell, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9374221

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Santa Fe 5011 Texas Class 2-10-4 No.5017

Santa Fe “5011” “Texas” Class 2-10-4 No.5017. Built by Baldwin in 1944, this example is now at Green Bay Railroad Museum, 8/70. Baldwin started building these in the 1930s, and they were the heaviest (247.5 tons) and most powerful (T.E. 93,000 lbs) “Texas” type ever built and also had the largest piston thrust (234,000 lbs) of any locomotive.                 By Hugh Llewelyn – 5017Uploaded by Oxyman, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=24387751

Steam in the USA reached its zenith in the, early 1930’s, at the beginning of that decade there wore over 56000 locomotives in service. It was at this time, marking the ·beginning of the “Streamline Era”, that some of the most impressive and largest locomotives were built. The largest, as we have noted, were the mammoth Mallet articulated types, for heavy freight haulage. On the passenger side, as in this country, passenger schedules with improved timings, demanding higher speeds, dictated the design of more powerful locomotives, capable of handling the heaviest loadings. But, whereas in this country passenger locomotive design reached a peak with the heavy 4-6-2 Pacific types, in the USA. passenger locomotives became even larger. Amongst the largest and most impressive of these were perhaps the 4-6-4 Hudson and 4-8-4 Niagara types for the New York Central Railroad.

North American 1RPB Photo 488 NYC Niagara No 6000

Classic North American steam locomotives for express passenger or freight services, are perhaps nowhere better illustrated by the streamlined 4-6-4 “Hudson” and 4-8-4 “Niagara” designs for the New York Central Railroad.

Photos: Assoc of American RRs / RPB Collection

Of these, the former was probably the more popular for passenger haulage, the design being used in quantity by most, if not all of the U.S. Class 1 railroads. The New York Central’s design was possibly the most successful, though seeing a variety of improvements and alterations from its first inception, the overall design remained the same, its capacity for sustained high speed haulage of heavy loads was surpassed by few, if any others.

It might well be imagined that all North American steam locomotives were of massive proportions, such however would be far from the case, though it must be said that even the “Branch Line” locomotives were more often than not
 as large as many British main line types. Again, not all locos. were conventional in design. Apart from the several narrow gauge lines, the USA possessed some quite unique examples in the “Shay” and “Heisler” geared drive locos. intended for use on logging railroads, where the gradients, curves and clearances were often extremely severe.

The changeover from steam to diesel traction was begun earlier than here, but unlike this country, when the final elimination of steam took place, the railroads had a fairly lengthy experience of the new motive power behind them. The first diesel appeared on the Central of New Jersey Railroad in 1925. It was not an immediate success however, its power to weight ratio made it uneconomic, but these were problems of course, that were subsequently overcome, since 27 years later, the number of diesel locomotives outweighed that of steam. An interesting comparison can be made with these figures; in 1929 there were only 22 diesels in service, compared with 56,936steam types, by 1955 diesels were in the majority with 24,786 and only 5,982 steam. For steam, the worst years and complete elimination came between 1955 and 1962. During this period the number of diesels rose by 3,318; steam locomotives being reduced from 5,982 to 51! There are still, at the time of writing, seven steam locos in service on Class l railroads, six of which are narrow gauge types.

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Further Reading & Useful Links:

From Railway Matters: New York Central Giants

 

 

Deltics in Retrospect – Part 2

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The 22 ‘Deltics’ lasted 20 years in high-speed main line service between London and Edinburgh, until they were replaced by the equally successful HSTs. The English Electric Type 5, later Class 55 has achieved as much fame and respect in the eyes of rail and engineering enthusiasts as the equally famous steam locomotives of Class A3 ‘Flying Scotsman’ and Class A4 ‘Mallard’ steam era 4-6-2 pacific locomotives.

D9019 at Bury on ELR

D9019 “Royal Highland Fusilier” at work on the East Lancashire Railway in the 1990s, seen here at Bury in classic two-tone green, but with full height yellow warning panels.                 © Rodger Bradley

Aside from their innovative engine design, and impressive power output, they turned in some quite remarkable performances with heavy trainloads over long distances. One of the most impressive was that of D9008 (55 008) “The Green Howards”, which, in 1978 hauled 10 coaches (343 gross tons) between York and London at an average speed of 97 mph – start to stop! (This is on record by a J. Heaton of the Railway Performance Society).

Thankfully 6 of the class have been preserved and are operating on a number of heritage lines, from the East Lancashire Railway, Great Central, Keighley & Worth Valley, and Severn Valley, amongst others, to numerous rail tours around the country.

Half of the preserved examples are now available for running on the main lines once again, although one of their number D9016 “Gordon Highlander” is undergoing a major overhaul, but back in the late 1990s it was used, along with sister locomotives on charter rail tours and specials, including the Venice Simplon Orient Express.

It is perhaps something of an irony that 16 of the class were scrapped at BREL’s Doncaster Works between January 1980s and August 1983, just as BREL was building the Class 58 freight locomotive, and Doncaster Works itself was finally closed in 2007 – though it had been run down for some years before.

When the class was built at Vulcan Foundry, the railway industry was still home to major engineering concerns – not least of which were the works at Newton-le-Willows, where these 22 locomotives were completed to the order from English Electric. Oddly perhaps, the order was placed through English Electric’s Bradford electrical works, and not from the nearby Dick, Kerr works at Preston, which had a long established relationship with the company, and where the original Deltic was built.   The production version, with the design ‘tweaks’ to the bodysides and appearance, were completed at just under two locomotives per month between March 1961 and April 1962, and were to have an operating life of just 20 years.

D9015 - Tulyar - cropped

D9015 “Tulyar” on a normal express service, at high-speed on the East Coast Main Line, where they were the definitive high-speed train of their day. The locomotive is in full original livery in this view. © RPB/GEC Traction Collection

Build & Operations

The Deltics were all built at the Vulcan Foundry, Newton-Ie-Willows, between March 1961 and April 1962, though the order was placed with English Electric for their construction in 1960. Listed here are the building dates:

DELTIC Running numbers

From new the Deltics were allocated to three depots; Finsbury Park in North London, Gateshead in the North East and Edinburgh Haymarket in Scotland.

The original allocations up to and including 1964 were:

  • 34G Finsbury Park – D9001 /3/7/9/12/18/20;
  • 52A Gateshead – D9002/5/8/11/14/17;
  • 64B Haymarket (Edinburgh) – D9000/4/6/10/13/16/19/21.

The allocations in 1978 were:

  • FP Finsbury Park – 55001/3/7/9/12/15/18/20;
  • GD Gateshead – 55002/58/11/14/17;
  • HA Haymarket (Edinburgh) – 55004/6/10/13/16/19/21/22.

Essentially they remained at these locations until their withdrawals began in 1980.

By June1961 the first six locomotives had commenced regular long distance passenger workings, but rostered in true steam locomotive style, since a Finsbury Park Deltic would work the down ‘Aberdonian’ on Sundays, returning the following day with the up ‘Flying Scotsman’. Similarly, Scottish Region Deltics worked out on the 11.00am Edinburgh to King’s Cross as far as Newcastle, returning with 11.00am ex King’s Cross. Later, their range was extended to work through to London and return on th e ‘Talisman’ and ‘Aberdonian’ services. Working what were traditional steam locomotive diagrams alongside English Electric Type 45, was undoubtedly an under-utilisation of Deltic power.

The first impressions of Deltic capability was displayed with some substantial accelerations of the principal East Coast services in the summer timetables introduced from June 18, 1962. It was widely recognised that the inclusion of a six hour timing between London and Edinburgh was an achievement on a par with the pre-war lightweight, streamlined ‘Coronation’ train – but. the Deltic diagram included no less than six such workings. The trains concerned in the in initial speed up were the ‘Elizabethan’, ‘Flying Scotsman’ and ‘Talisman’, the last two covering the 268.35 miles between King’s Cross and Newcastle in just one minute over four hours; an average speed of 66.8mph. Other named trains included in the accelerations were the ‘ Heart of Midlothian’, ‘Tees Tyne Pullman’, ‘ Yorkshire Pullman’, ‘Car-Sleeper Limited ‘ and the ‘Anglo Scottish Car Carrier’. Of these, the up ‘Tees Tyne Pullman’ was booked to provide the fastest average over the 44.1 miles from Darlington to York of 75.6mph. Of the night runs, some of these provided examples of the most dramatic accelerations, including no less than 77 minutes for the down ‘Car Sleeper Limited’ between London and Edinburgh with Deltic haulage. Deltics were also booked for both the 8.20pm down ‘Mail’ from King’s Cross, and the corresponding 8.20pm up train from Newcastle. With an average rostered load of over 450 tons, these services were accelerated by 40 and 33 minutes respectively.

D9013_The_Black_Watch(8191899366) copy

D9013 “The Black Watch” (later 55 013) in BR two-tone green livery and ½ height yellow warning panel enters Kings Cross in July 1966 with “The Flying Scotsman” from Edinburgh Waverley complete with the then new headboard which was carried for only a few years. By Hugh Llewelyn CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=24383446

The pattern of high speed Deltic hauled services was continued into the winter of 1962 and beyond, their reliability and availability built into a reputation for all round performance a success second to none. Of the pilot scheme diesels, many were dropped, though despite the early unreliability of the medium speed engines with electric transmission, a BR report of 1965 came down firmly in favour of that arrangement. Even so, the Deltics remained, a lone example of the successful mating of a high-speed diesel engine with electric transmission.

Standardisation in 1967 kept these 22 locomotives in the BR fleet as Class 55,and with the emphasis on higher powers, the National Traction Plan listed a basic main line stud to comprise classes; 20, 25, 27, 31, 33, 37, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52 and 55, to be achieved by 1974. An interesting inclusion was the Class 48, an improved Brush Type 4 that never materialised.

By the time of this particular spate of rationalisation, the Deltics had of course eliminated steam from all the principle East Coast workings, and operated intensive cyclic diagrams, and broke completely from steam traditions in not being allocated to any particular depot or Region, working throughout as required. With the introduction of the Brush Type 4 locos, much secondary work was taken from the Class 40s, the Deltics early stable mates, and occasionally, the Brush types would deputise for Deltics in the relatively rare event of a failure of the latter.

The_'Napier'_Bellow_-_55_009_(14675011249) copy

Class 55 English Electric ‘Deltic’ diesel locomotive No. 55 009 “Alicydon” roars up Holloway Bank out of Kings Cross with an Inter-City express for the North East in the mid 1970s. The green livery has gone, and full height warning panels in use. By Barry Lewis CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=44987568

Mechanically, the Deltics were required to achieve a standard life expectancy of 25 years, even allowing for the fact that they were the most intensively worked of all the BR diesel types. From new this meant that they would become life expired in 1986-7, and al though the rate of deterioration was virtually nil over a period of ten years, between say 1966 and 1976, in the last couple of years of operation withdrawal began to increase steadily. The last were taken out of service in May 1982. It is interesting to note that the first five years of the life of the Deltic engines – the running in period were guaranteed by the makers. With the introduction of the IC 125s, or HSTs on the East Coast main line the Deltics were gradually relegated to lesser duties, including excursions and inter-regional running, being latterly quite frequent visitors to the LMR. On 28th February, 1981, Deltic No 55022 (D9000), Royal Scots Grey, had completed 20 years service, the first of the class to do so, perhaps not surprisingly since it was the first production loco to enter service. In the event the occasion was marked by loco No, 55022 working the 12.20 King’s Cross to York with a special headboard provided by the Deltic Preservation Society, and a photographic exhibition was opened at the National Railway Museum by Deputy Keeper Mr P. W. B. Semmens. One loco is officially preserved at the NRM, 55002 The King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.

Liveries

There were two main liveries carried by the Deltics, with some detail variations. The first schemes carried by these locomotives were what might be termed the standard green livery for diesel types as introduced with the first pilot scheme classes of 1957-8. The first BR schedule covering the painting of diesel locomotives in green livery was issued in 1956, and although some of the details were not really applicable to the Deltics, the basic treatment and processes were the same. It is interesting to note that in that first schedule, the green livery included a black roof (specification 30, item 36), and steam style express passenger lining and transfers – the lining being in orange and black at waist and skirt level on the body sides.

D9000

D9000 (later 55022) – the first of the class in original colours, captured on 17th August 1987 at a TMD open day – possibly Tyseley in Birmingham Photo: By Peter Broster CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31876267

The Deltics were initially painted to the modified specification 30A, and covered by a schedule produced at the time of their introduction in 1961-2. This divided the painting processes into a number of areas, but those of principal interest to the modeller are of course the superstructure (exterior surfaces), roof, bogies, running gear and underframe. Wheels, axles and bogie frames were given one coat of primer to specification30A, item 1, and one coat of black lacquer, to item 40 of the same specification- though not of course to the wheel treads! Brake gear and exterior surfaces of the main framing .was treated to a final coat of general purpose black. Bufferbeams and stocks (with the exception of the short section of fairing covering part of the stocks) were red to Specification30A, item 9, with the colour a close match to BSS 2660-0-005. On top of this was a single coat of varnish. All exterior surfaces of the fuel and water tanks were given a coat of general purpose black whilst the battery boxes were given two coats of Black Acid Resisting Varnish (Specification 30A, item 4l).

Driving cab positions

Cab interior of Deltic in build. © RPB/GEC Traction Collection

Following various preparatory processes, the main livery areas of the body side panels were treated to one coat of primer, one coat of grey undercoat, one of locomotive green sealer/undercoating paint and a final coat of locomotive green enamel. This latter was Specification30A, item 34, and extended over the entire loco bodyside panels from skirt to gutters. A deep skirt or valance on the lower bodyside stopping just short of theca b door entrance sills, was picked out in a lighter colour, known as Sherwood Green. This was carried completely around the locomotive, and following the application of running numbers and crest, a single coat of locomotive exterior varnish was applied.

The roof area between the gutters was grey, and described officially as Diesel Locomotive Roof Paint, Specification 30A item 57. Cab windscreen and side window surrounds were picked out in white, originally with small yellow warning panels applied to each nose end, surrounding the four character train indicator boxes. The colour was to BSS2660-0-003, and most of the class although built without having warning panels had them applied later, only D9020 and D9021 had them painted on from new. Other non-standard details displayed originally included white buffer heads and drawgear on some members of the class; similarly axlebox end covers were picked out in yellow, as were the equalising beams on D9020 Nimbus – for a time. Window surrounds and boiler room air intake grille beadings were bright finished metal.

Block style running numbers were carried under each of the four cab side windows, in white, and below these were affixed crests of the type first introduced in 1956. Nameplates were carried on the bodysides mid-way between the cabs, and were cast in brass, with the lettering raised from a red background. Though before the locomotives received names a large crest was carried on the bodyside in the nameplate position. Soon after the Deltics were introduced, no more than two years to be precise, the first application of standard Rail Blue livery was made to a Brush/Sulzer Type 4 locomotive, and this standard rapidly became established on principal main line types.

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English Electric Deltic class 55 diesel locomotive No. 55 012 “Crepello” arriving at Kings Cross with an express from the North East. 1976 By Barry Lewis – CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=44987576

On the Deltics, the use of Rail Blue to BR Specification 53, item 13, covered the entire body, including the roof areas. It was alleviated only by the yellow nose, which itself was more extensive than the earlier warning panel, over-running the corners for a few inches. The underframes and bogies remained the conventional black. In recent years however, there has been a trend away from the rather dull uniform appearance of BRs blue locos, initiated largely on the Eastern Region, and resulting in a number of Deltics sporting white cab window surrounds again.

During the change over period from green to blue livery in 1968-69, D9005/17/18 had full yellow ends whilst still in green livery: D9010 also in green, had the new double arrow symbol. In the standard form on blue liveried locomotives this was 2 foot 6 inches long, and fixed under the cab side windows at each of the four corners, with the asymmetric running number behind each cab door. The ‘D’ prefix was dropped at this time also, and with the introduction of the ‘TOPS’ re-numbering scheme in 1972, the 6 inch high numbers of Class 55, in white, were positioned behind the cab doors on the driver’s side only.

The last variation on the Deltics livery has been the repainting for preservation of D9002 (55002), King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, in the original standard two-tone green livery. A pleasing comparison with the standard Rail Blue, and perhaps with just a twinge of nostalgia, it doesn’t appear quite as dull as it did in the early 1960s, when steam was still to a great degree, supreme!

Life After Service & Preservation

No less than 6 of this unique class have been preserved, two D9009 and D9019 are operational for main line service, one D9002, is on permanent display at the National Railway Museum, whilst the remaining three (D9000, D9015, D9016) are under restoration or overhaul. Two of the cabs from D9008 “The Green Howards”, and D9021     “Argyll & Sutherland Highlander” are also preserved as static exhibits.

DELTIC preservedAfter withdrawals took place in the 1980s, British Rail banned all privately owned diesels from operating on its network, but the work towards securing and returning to operational service a member of this historic design began. However, despite an occasional run out to open days, and a trip for D9002 to its final resting place at the National Railway Museum in 1982, nothing further was seen of a Deltic in full service mode until after the privatisation of BR in the 1990s.

DP2 on Yorkshire Pullman trial run

The prototype DP2, with its new English Electric 2,700hp 16CSVT engine hauling then Yorkshire Pullman on a trial run. © RPB/GEC traction Collection

Whilst heritage railways had always been a home for these and many ex BR diesel types, it was not until the arrival of open-access train operations in the 1990s, that, for a fee, the owners of these powerful machines could take to main line running again, under Railtrack, and today, Network Rail.

Of course, as we are all aware, there was a spare Deltic body that gave birth to another famous English Electric diesel design – intriguingly at first carrying the number DP2 – later of course becoming the British Rail Class 50, with a new design of 4-stroke, 2,700hp diesel engine from the same maker. These are described in some detail in the post from the link below.

More useful links:

 

 

 

 

 

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Deltics in Retrospect – Part 1

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The DeItics, or rather the 22 locomotives originally designated English Electric Type 5 Co-Co diesel-electric, over a working life of more than twenty years became top favourites with all rail enthusiasts as they carried out the express passenger duties on the East Coast Main Line. And yet, initially, the design was not in tended for the Eastern Region at all, but the London Midland. Following the highly successful operation of the prototype Deltic locomotive, on LMR and ER metals, it was decided to place an order with English Electric for a production version. In essence this retained the twin I8-cylinder ‘Deltic’ engines of the prototype in a stretched body, with a number of other detail modifications, providing BR with what was at the time the world’s most powerful single unit diesel locomotive.

Deltic at NRM large_CD040355

The original “Deltic” prototype Photo courtesy Science Museum Group Collection © The Board of Trustees of the Science Museum Descriptions and all other text content are licensed under a https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

The first three production Deltics appeared in March 1961 and were allocated to the Scottish, Eastern and North Eastern Regions respectively. They were numbered D9000-02 in the then current numbering scheme. They were the result of six years running experience with the prototype; which remained the property of English Electric until its withdrawal and preservation in the Science Museum in 1963. The prototype had experienced only minor problems during the 400,000miles it covered in service, almost all of which centred around the Napier ‘Deltic’ engine. It was in this, in fact, that the unique nature of the Deltic locomotive was contained. The power unit was developed from a design prepared for the Admiralty in the early 1950s for its ‘Dark’ class fast patrol boats – a lightweight two-stroke diesel, opposed piston, water cooled engine. The cylinders-eighteen in all – were arranged in banks of six around the three sides of an inverted triangle – hence the Deltic name. Happily, the engines installed in the rail version had a much more successful career than those for the Royal Navy.

Original Deltic in Preston Works

Prototype Deltic in the erecting shop at Preston Works in 1956 – almost complete. © Rodger Bradley/GEC Traction Collection

The genesis of the ‘Deltic’ design was outlined in some draft notes on English Electric’s history prepared for GEC Traction’s publicity department around 1970, and included this summary:

1952

The development of a completely new ultra lightweight high speed 2-stroke diesel engine by D. Napier & Son, initiated an investigation 
into the traction potential of the new engine. In due course emerged the parameters for the design of a revolutionary single-unit diesel-electric locomotive of a power substantially greater than existed at the time (or 
for some years after it’s subsequent introduction).

Alongside the production of well established designs for export the prototype began to take shape, finally going into proving service on the L.M.Region of B.R. in 1956, the most powerful single-unit d.e. loco in the world with the highest power/weight ratio. With 3,300 hp from its two 18-cyl Napier engines, the “Deltic” loco weighed some 108 tons, max. axle loading – 18 tons.

During extensive service trials, speeds of well over 120 mile/hour were reputed to have been reached (unofficially), due, principally to the extremely smooth riding of the loco under which speeds downgrade could build up without the rougher riding more normally associated with speeds around 100 mile/hour at that time.”

The notes went on to highlight the steady development of English Electric’s diesel engines and its rail traction success. The production “Deltic” locomotives went on to become legends on a par, if not exceeding that of the Gresley or Stanier pacific steam locomotives.

Teething troubles in the design were basically the result of its transfer to rail traction use, and for the prototype, in addition to the two engines it carried, no less than three were maintained as spares. This was partly for test purposes, and partly to seek out the cause and cure for major problems of erratic valve operation. On the locomotive, with two engines, should one fail completely, it was still possible to move using only the one remaining engine.

Ironically, the prototype Deltic was withdrawn from service and returned to the Vulcan Foundry in the same month the as the first production units appeared. A piston failure occurred while the locomotive was working a Kings Cross to Doncaster service, which badly damaged one of the engines, and during March, the power plant, train-heating boiler, traction motors and control system was removed. It was planned to scrap the remaining shell, before the proposal to display it in the Science Museum was made – and fortunately this proposal was successful.

Deltic Prototype from Dec 1955 BR LM Region Magazine

The prototype as portrayed in the December 1955 issue of the London Midland Region Magazine – worth noting is the statement at the foot of the caption, stating that it had been built for export.

The table below gives the leading dimensions and other principal details of the 22 Deltic locomotives, in ‘as built’ condition.

Deltic leading dimensions

* Although when introduced, all the Deltics were fitted with both air and vacuum brake equipment, the latter being required since a majority of the passenger stock was still vacuum-fitted. The air brake equipment was for loco use only, and in 1967-8, the entire class was fitted with train air brake equipment.

DE:5001:1

The BR weight diagram of the production series Deltics, in original condition and running order.

Mechanical Details

(1) Power Equipment and Transmission

The two engines fitted into each locomotive were high-speed two-stroke diesels, each of which developed 1,650hp from eighteen cylinders. The design comprised three banks of six cylinders arranged around the sides of an inverted equilateral triangle, with all the piston heads opposite one another. This meant that instead of having the main crankshafts in the conventional position at the base of the engine, they were positioned at the three apexes of the triangle.

Deltic Engine ViewsThis complex construction, as previously mentioned was a development of a design produced by Napier for the Admiralty. In fact, the rail traction version, designated type D18-25 maintained the same size cylinders as some of the more powerful marine types, which in the 1950s had reached outputs exceeding 4000hp. One benefit gained from the triangular arrangement was the almost complete balancing of the reciprocating forces.

The pistons themselves were oil-cooled with an aluminium alloy skirt, and a dished alloy crown, screwed and shrunk onto the skirt. Three separate camshafts were fitted to the outer faces of the crankcases, with the fuel injection pumps mounted on the camshaft casings. Lubrication of the engine was based on a ‘dry sump system’, and all bearings and gears were supplied with oil under pressure.
The engines were constructed from three separate cylinder blocks and crankcases, secured by high tensile steel bolts – a method of construction reckoned to give a very strong and rigid structure. At the generator end of each engine a set of phasing gears was provided to drive a common output shaft. From the phasing gearcase, two flexible shafts passed through the uppermost crankcases to drive a centrifugal, double entry scavenge blower. The 5 1/8 in bore cylinders were fitted with steel ‘wet’ type liners with nine exhaust ports arranged around part of the circumference at one end of the liner, and 14 inlet ports around the full circumference at the opposite end.

Deltic D9001 - Vulcan Works Photo March 1961

D9001 the second of the class seen here fresh from the paint shop at the Vulcan Foundry works in March 1961. Sporting the two-tone-green livery and BR’s lion and wheel crest on the body side, with white-framed cab windows. © RPB/GEC Traction Collection

The generators attached to the output shaft of the phasing gearcase were self-ventilated DC machines, with a continuous rating of 1,650 amps at 660 volts. The phasing gearcase output shaft to which the armatures were attached rotated at 1,125rpm – the speed being stepped down from the crankshaft speed of 1,500 rpm. The auxiliary generators were mounted above the main generators and driven by a take off shaft from the phasing gearcase at 1 2/3 the crankshaft speed. The 110-volt supply was used for excitation of the traction generator field coils, lighting and various ancillary circuits.

With both engines in operation, the load was shared between the auxiliary machines, and the main generators were connected in series to supply the six traction motors. Should one power unit fail, the system was designed to provide full tractive effort, but at only half normal road speed. The six English Electric Type EE 538 traction motors were nose suspended, axle hung machines, driving the respective axles through a pinion mounted on the end of the motor armature shaft, and a gear wheel on the axle. The motors were force ventilated, from blowers mounted in each nose end, and electrically connected as three parallel groups of two motors in series.

In order to improve the speed characteristics over which full locomotive power was available, two stages of traction motor field weakening were provided. Engine cooling was by means of two roof mounted radiator fans, each engine having a pair of fans driven through gearboxes and cardan shafts with universal joints.

(2) Control systems

Control of engine speed was by means of air pressure actuators acting on the spring loading of the engine governors. Excitation of each main generator was altered through the load regulators – multi contact rotary switches. The opening and closing of the contacts was via the engine governor and oil driven vane actuator. This in turn varied the resistance in the main generator field circuit, keeping the respective engine at full load for that specific position of the power handle.

All auxiliary circuits were supplied at 110volts, for the operation of pumps, blowers, compressors, etc. An electrical control cubicle was provided behind each cab bulkhead, and housed all the principal circuit protection devices. General protection devices included automatic correction of wheel slip, which involved a slight reduction in traction motor voltage and application of sand.

This arrangement for controlling wheel slip was also in experimental use in 1961 on the 2000hp English Electric Type 4 No D255.

In the event of high cooling water temperature, or low lubricating oil pressure, the engine affected was shut down automatically. Faults such as these would be indicated on the control desk in the driving cab, together with boiler shut down and general fault lights. The general fault light was linked to secondary fault indication lights in the engine compartment detailing particular faults, such as traction motor blower failure, low water or fuel level. The low fuel level indicator meant that enough fuel for only 50 miles of running remained.

Grey Folder GEC - 1 5

Just a couple of years after the first production locomotives entered service – DP1, the original ‘Deltic’ was presented to Science Museum in September 1963, after 45,000 miles running. This view was taken on the day of the presentation.       (c) GEC Traction / RP Bradley Collection

(3) Bogies, Running Gear -General Constructional Features

The bogie main frames and bolsters were fabricated assemblies with the headstocks riveted to them. The general arrangement was similar to the prototype locomotive, though the wheelbase at13ft 6in, equally divided, was shorter. Underhung equalising beams of forged steel were fixed to stirrups incorporated in the axlebox assembly, with the stirrups and equalising brackets being provided with manganese steel liners. Similarly, liners were fitted to the wearing faces of the roller bearing axlebox guides, bolsters, side bearers and centre pivots. The load was transmitted to the bogie through the bolster side bearers and four nests of coil springs to two spring planks suspended by swing links from the bogie frame. Dampers were fitted between the bolster and spring planks. Four pairs of coil springs distributed the load from the solebar to the equalising beam.

Deltic in build at Vulcan_RPB Collection

A Deltic bogie alongside the body framing for one of the class in build at the Vulcan Foundry works, at Newton-le-Willows. All 22 were built at Vulcan between March 1961 and April 1962.    © RPB/GEC Traction Collection

This design of swing bolster bogie was also fitted to the English Electric Type 3Co-Co locomotives, and in June 1961,fractures were discovered in the transom webs of two locos, and as a result all locos with this type of bogie were withdrawn whilst a modification was made. This involved the provision of thicker gauge steel for the particular component, and no further trouble was experienced from this source on either the Type 3s or the Deltics. An interesting arrangement of ducting for traction motor cooling air was used, involving a flexible connection to two of the motors through the hollow bogie centre via the bolster, with similar ducting and flexible connections to the third motor. Clasp type brake rigging was fitted, and could be operated directly through the driver’s air brake valve, or operation of the vacuum brake on the train would cause a proportional application of the loco’s brakes to be made. In1967-68 all the Deltics were equipped with a train air brake system for working the latest stock, including air conditioning.

The underframe and body framing was designed as a load bearing structure, built up from cold formed steel sections and carried on two centrally positioned longitudinal members, and rolled steel channel solebars. A steel plate decking was welded to the top of the underframe with wells under the engine/generator units. All exterior and interior panelling was welded with joints ground flush. Fibreglass insulation was provided between the bodyside panels and in the cab, reducing noise and temperature variation. A more than usual proportion of fibreglass was used in the Deltics, with sections being adapted for battery and sand boxes, main cable ducts, instrument panels, cab and equipment compartment doors. The underslung fuel and boiler feed water tanks were welded up from light alloy sheet, and carried between the bogies. Water tanks were insulated and fitted with heating coils. A characteristic steam locomotive fitting was also provided on these advanced diesel locomotives – a water pick up scoop for use on troughs fitted between the rails.

Basically, the body could be divided into five compartments, which were as follows: No 1 end cab, engine room, boiler compartment, engine room, No 2 end cab. In front of each cab, a nose compartment housed various items of equipment. At the No 1 end these included two exhausters, CO2 fire extinguishers and a traction motor blower and air filter. The nose end in front of the No 2 cab – in addition to the traction motor blower and fire fighting appliances – also housed a toilet and the air compressor. In each case, in view of the height of the nose, both Driver and Second man’s positions were on a raised platform within the cab proper, which was provided with an access door on either side. Due to the restriction of space caused by the intrusion of part of the control cubicle into the cab, the two outer doors were sliding, whilst the engine room access doors opened into the cab.

The engines were positioned in. the engine compartments so that the generators faced outwards, ie, towards the cab, and separated by the train-heating boiler. This latter occupied a space12ft I Din in length at the mid-point of the locomotive. It was a Spanner ‘Swirlyflow’ Mk II, with a steaming capacity of 15001b/hr.

D9005 - The Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire copy

D9005 ‘The Prince of Wales’s Own Regiment of Yorkshire’ on a typical high-speed service on the East Coast Main Line in the 1960s. The change when compared to later 1970s and 1980s, when HST sets were used, and today, with electrification is quite dramatic.                               © RPB/GEC Traction Collection

Follow this link for Part 2 – Build & Operations

Further reading & Useful Links:

British_Rail_Class_55  (Wikipedia)

The Deltic Locomotives of British Rail – Brian Webb.  Pub. David & Charles 1982; ISBN 0-7153-8110-5

 

IMG_9395
The Deltic Preservation Society  Screenshot 2019-09-26 at 15.46.24

 

 

-oOo-

High Altitude Steam

Standard

In  1871,  the first mountain railway  in  Europe using the rack and pinion system,  the Vitznau Rigi Bahn (VRB) was opened, and not surprisingly perhaps, it  was in Switzerland. It was not the first mountain railway, since just 3 years ealier, the Mont Cenis Railway, linking France and Italy was opened, using the unique ‘Fell System’.  The new railway climbed from  Vitznau  on the shores of Lake Lucerne to  the  summit  of Mount  Rigi – the ‘Queen of Mountains’ – some 6,000 feet above sea level. Apart from its position as the first rack railway in Europe, the Vitznau Rigi Bahn (VRB) is unusual, in being built to the 4ft 8 1/2ins gauge, where most other railways in Switzerland are built to the metre gauge, or less. Of course, it  was not possible to climb the mountain by conventional means, and the first  steam locomotives also saw the introduction of  the  “Rig­genbach” cog wheel, or rack railway system. With this, a toothed rack  was placed in the centre of the two running rails, and  the cogwheels  on  the locomotives engaged tooth by tooth  with  this rack, to enable the train to maintain a grip.

Other rack systems had  been developed, all more or less dervived from Blenkinsop’s toothed wheel locomotive design for the Middleton Colliery near Leeds. Blenkinsop’s rails had a toothed rack cast on the outside of the running rails, to allow a pinion on the engine’s wheels to engage, and provide the essential grip for traction. The system was patented in 1811, but apart from mineral and colliery lines, by the 1830s it was proven that adhesion only locomotives were the best fit for a conventional railway. The only exception was of course where to get from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’, some very steep graients and sharp curves were needed.

Other systems to provide extra adhesion or braking force, such as the ‘Fell System’, adopted  for  the Rimutaka line in New Zealand, where additional wheels, driven by auxiliary steam engines, and pressed horizontally against a central rail were used. Back in central  Switzerland, as the expansion in the use of true rack and pinion railways grew, a near neighbour of Mount Rigi – Mount Pilatus –  needed to adopt an entirely different system. So, in  addition to the first, and oldest mountain  railway in Europe, the Lucerne area also boasts the world’s steepest rack railway.

Vitznaurhof & Rigi 1989-1

Classic view from the station at “Rigi Kulm”, looking down over Lake Lucerne, with a train making its way down to Vitznau. (c) Rodger Bradley

In this case, climbing over 7,000 feet, to the  summit of  Mount  Pilatus, where the three miles long Pilatusbahn was opened  in 1889, nearly twenty years after the Vitznau Rigi  Bahn (VRB). On Pilatus, the Lochner rack system was used, where  the teeth on the central rack projected sideways, and the cog  wheels on the vehicles engaged on either side of this rack, to give even greater  grip. Pilatusbahn was still steam hauled until about the time of the First World War, when  the vertical boilered  steam railcars  were superseded by electric vehicles.

The  Riggenbach Rack system, and the Vitznau Rigi  Bahn (VRB) hold a particularly special place in railway development in Switzerland and Europe. To this day, the “Queen of Mountains” – Rigi  – continues to see steam locomotives hauling people to  one of the most famous Alpine summits. A famous visitor, one Mark Twain, likened his experience on the Rigi to sliding down the balusters of a staircase!

En-route, the line climbs through lush Alpine  meadows, on quite severe gradients to an intermediate junction station  at Rigi Kaltbad – over 4,400 feet above sea level  –  to its ultimate destination Rigi Kulm. There are some six  interme­diate stops possible, although some of these are halts only,  and on request, or for other technical, or operational reasons. From the  summit, on a clear day it is possible to see for many  miles around, with superb views across Lake Lucerne, towards the  ‘Roof of Europe’ and the Bernese Oberland. Nowadays, steam traction on the VRB terminates at Rigi Kaltbad, and the journey behind one of the  two  steam  locomotives – Nos. 16 or 17  –  takes  about  45 minutes, according to the timetables.

The  early motive power used on the Vitznau  Rigi  Bahn (VRB)  was composed of vertical boilered steam  locomotives,  and not  the ‘kneeling cow’ variety more commonplace in later  years. In  fact, the very first of this type, was also the first  to  be built  by SLM (Schweizerische Lokomotiv and Maschinenfabrik),  in 1873, and carried works number 1. This locomotive was taken  out of  normal service in 1937, and for a time was on display at  the station  in  Vitznau, and eventually found a home  in  the  Swiss Railway Museum in Luzern.

In fact, VRB locomotive No.7, as  pre­served,  is  the third oldest steam locomotive  in  the  national collection, behind “Limmat” and “Genf”, which were built for more conventional  railways  in Switzerland. VRB No.7 has a  pair  of outside cylinders, carried either side of the central boiler,  on what  could  be  described as an 0-4-0  wheel  arrangement.  The driver’s position is immediately behind the vertical boiler, with a  small fenced platform to the front. With a cab roof as  well, for  1873,  No.7 was a fairly advanced  design, even considering  the comforts  of the crew! Not surprisingly perhaps, it is  far  too valuable  to be used in regular service today.  However,  during the  VRB’s 125th anniversary year 1996, No.7 was used  for special  excursions from May onwards. It is now a quarter of acentury older, and this historic railway continues to draw many thousands of visitors every year. Those special excursions are still possible today, in 2019.

Rigi_vertical_boiler

The oldest vertical boilered steam locomotive in the world – No. 7 is seen here at the summit stations ” Rigi Kulm”. Built by SLM in 1873.                        Photo: Audrius Meskauskas – Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7157010

Switzerland was amongst the very first countries in the world to adopt electric traction, and its unusual mountain  rail­ways  were in almost every aspect pioneers of this form of  trac­tion. On the Rigi though, steam traction and the Riggenbach rack system  are  still in action today, with  two  more  conventional locomotives, also built by SLM. The 0-4-2 locomotives Nos. 16  & 17  are at work every year on the Rigi, normally one Sunday  each month.  Both  are now ‘getting on’ a bit, having been  built  in 1923, they are perhaps well into pensionable age. As the  photo­graph shows, the construction of the locomotive is almost conven­tional, with a horizontal boiler, rear cab, and a pair of  inside cylinders  carried  under the smokebox. The coupled  wheels  are separated by a jackshaft, which connects both the outside wheels, and  the cog wheels connecting with the Riggenbach rack,  in  the centre of the tracks. As the train climbs upwards of course, the boiler  becomes  parallel, rather than tipped  forward,  ensuring that the water level is horizontal. These are fascinating  loco­motives  to watch in action, as the inside cylinders  drive  onto the  centrally  placed jackshaft, which transfers  power  to  the coupling  rods, and finally, the wheels. The diminutive  locomo­tives  –  only 7 metres, or just under 23 feet long –  wease  and struggle  to the top of the mountain.

Luzern -8

No.16 making ready for the ascent from Vitznau. The experience of riding to the summit of the “Queen of Mountains” being propelled by one of these is truly amazing.                             (c) Rodger Bradley

Today  the  VRB’s main motive power is  electric,  with multiple units climbing to the summit and back every day, in only 30  minutes. The electric railcars reach Rigi Kaltbad in a  mere 18  minutes. Once at Rigi Kaltbad, the VRB is joined by  another line,  rising from the opposite side of the mountain –  the  Arth Goldau Bahn. The ARB too has its unique characteristics, includ­ing some of the oldest working electric railcars in  Switzerland. One  of these dates back to 1899, and is one of the oldest  vehi­cles  specially designed to transport winter sports  enthusiasts. The  ARB  route from Arth Goldau to Rigi Kulm includes  five  in­termediate  halts  in the long climb, and takes around 30  to  35 minutes for the journey.

There have been upgrades and changes in rolling stock over the years, but steam traction is still available – even down to the oldest vertical boilered loco – No.7 – and the infrastructure has been renewed in places. In the autumn of 2017, the plan to buy new rolling stock was progressed, not by simply replacing the older stock with newer designs, but by procuring new, up to date vehicles with the latest ideas and technology.

The main project “Zielkonzept Betrieb” underway is to enhance the operating environment to take account of the complexity, and interchangeability, of running services with such a variety of stock. The infrastructure changes have included renewing catenary sections and replacing all rectifier stations along the line, and a new control system. The new trains, which are scheduled to be in service This procurement project is planned to see the first vehicle of the newest generation on the rails in time to celebrate the 150th anniversary in 2021.

The new two-car trains will feature more passenger space, barrier free access, and of course, state of the art technology. That technology will include regenerative braking, where instead of burning the braking energy through banks of resistors, on descent the trains will simply feed the energy back into the supply network. A neat, sustainable solution, and in a sense perhaps, the downhill trains will power the uphill operations.

 

New 2-car sets

Planned new railcars for the VRB.

Central Switzerland still boasts more than one regular­ly  steam worked mountain railway, including  the  800mm gauge Brienz-Rothorn Bahn,  which also uses the Riggenbach rack system. The  BRB  was steam hauled until the 1960s, and in fact,  it  was the  last all steam hauled rack railway in Switzerland.  The BRB celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2017, and continues to attract thousands of visitors every year. In later years, the BRB’s fleet  of  steam locomotives was supplemented  by  modern  diesel railcars  (the railway has not been electrified), which now  work regularly  at  off-peak periods, in turn with the  steam  locomo­tives. There are no less than seven steam locomotives stored at Brienz,  and they are used to provide the main services  on  this railway to the top of the Rothorn.   The BRB starts from the base of the mountain, at Brienz, and climbs to the summit, some  2,252 metres, or nearly 7,400 feet above sea level.

BRB 1

Classic BRB locomotive about to set off from the station at Brienz – still carrying the bulk of traffic up until the 1990s.   (c) Rodger Bradley

New BRB steam loco No12

One of the then new SLM built steam locomotives, with the latest steam technology, and coupled to a new passenger car.

In 1992, the BRB, together with Austria’s Schafbergbahn ordered new steam locomotives from SLM – some 40 years after the last steam rack locomotives were built. The new locomotives took account of the latest ideas and technology available for the new locomotives, which have now been operating on the BRB for almost 30 years!

Given the Swiss reputation for reliability, and  acces­sibility,  it is a pleasure to be able to reach easily,  and  see these  fascinating  steam  locomotives still  in  use.  For  the Vitznau Rigi Bahn, now approaching its 150th birthday in 2021, the sight of some of the oldest Riggenbach locomotive in operation will be a memorable occasion.

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Useful links:

 

 

 

 

Coal Dust Powered Steam Engines

Standard

In 1919, ‘The Engineer’ carried a short reference in its January 13th issue to experiments in using ‘coal dust’ in locomotive fireboxes, describing them as powdered fuel engines:

Of the Great Central powdered fuel engine we can at the moment say no mote than that we hope before long to place a complete description before our readers. We dealt in our issues of Aug. 23rd and 30th, with the device employed on American locomotives for coal-dust burning, and we may note now that, whilst the general principles followed by Mr. Robinson are naturally not very different, the arrangement of the parts has been worked out afresh. The Great Central experiments are being watched with interest, and in view of the present desire to economise fuel, and the now proved fact that coal-dust can be used satisfactorily in locomotive fire-box, we shall not be surprised to see other engineers following Mr Robinson’s lead.

Original entry:

GCR coal-dust extract

To be honest, I’d not considered the idea of pulverised fuel as a source for steam locomotives before, considering the availability of considerable quantities of black coal from mines in the UK. There were perhaps other countries where good steam coal was not so readily available – the USA, Italy, Germany, and Australia – at least in some areas can be considered in that category. Aside from the efficiency, the complexity or otherwise, of burning, handling and distributing pulverised fuel, the economic conditions might well have a part to play in its use.

EPSON scanner image

The GCR’s experiment with coal-dust firing started with this heavy freight design, seen here in later years in LNER days.  This Sunday line-up of heavy freight locomotives is seen at Whitemoor Depot, March cc-by-sa/2.0 – © Ben Brooksbank – geograph.org.uk/p/2333255

Take the Great Central example above, that was in the immediate post First World War era, so along with compounding, it was seen as a way of improving the efficiency of motive power through the use of a wider range of fuels. Primarily though, a combination of increased fuel cost and poorer quality coal led to J.G. Robinson’s experiments in using coal-dust, or pulverised fuel. In addition to economics, there was a belief that this would increase the level of combustion, and hence operating performance and efficiency.

The first trials took place with four 8K Class 2-8-0 freight locomotives (later Class O5 in LNER days), between 1917 and 1924. The 2-8-0s were fitted with a bogie tender, housing a container holding the coal-dust, which was then fed to the locomotive’s grate, through pipes. The conventional fire grate and ash pan had been replaced by firebricks, and the fuel blown into the front of the firebox, using a system of fans, driven initially by a petrol engine, and later by a small steam turbine. The coal-dust used in these trials was recovered from colliery screens, and then dried before use on the locomotive, where it was mixed with air for combustion. Amongst the downsides to the use of this arrangement was getting the air to coal-dust mixture right, and the design and layout of the firebox, and even mixing the coal dust with oil (colloidal fuel) proved equally problematic.

The following is an extract from a book entitled “Brown Coal”, published by Australia’s Victoria State Electricity Commission in 1952 gives some insight into Robinson’s experiments on the Great Central.

“The Great Central Railway Company had fitted two locomotives for burning, respectively, pulverised black coal and colloidal fuel, the latter a mixture of about 60 parts of pulverised coal and 40 parts of oil. The pulverised fuel locomotive was in regular service on one of the heaviest runs in England, between Gorton near Manchester and Dunford, a distance of nearly 18 miles; it had to take, its place with a 500-ton load among similar trains; half a dozen of these were following trains, all of which were likely to be held up if the pulverised fuel locomotive failed. All this indicated the confidence of the Railways officials in the reliability of the pulverised fuel locomotive under everyday working conditions. During August 1921 the author had a run on the footplate of the pulverised fuel locomotive on a day when the general traffic conditions were as described above. Running, tests had bees made previously with the two converted locomotives and with another using lump coal; for maintenance of steam pressure and rate of travel on the heaviest portions of the run, colloidal fuel showed best and pulverised coal next best. Two separate engines on the tender, which was specially built for this service, drove the feed screw for the coal and the blower fan. Technically these experiments appear to have been quite successful, but the official view of the company was that there would be no commercial gain in pulverising its high-grade black coal.”

These experiments with alternative fuels were not uncommon on a number of railways in the early years of the 20th Century, as William Holden’s oil-fired examples on the Great Eastern Railway testify. However, in the UK at least, the likelihood of more ‘coal-dust fired’ locomotives was unlikely to grow, and indeed it did not, and remains a curiosity.

It wasn’t just the Great Central that was experimenting with pulverised, the Southern Railway carried out some work in the 1920s, based on those developments in the USA. In 1916, The New York Central converted a 4-6-2 to burn pulverised coal, and although not leading to great numbers of similarly fuelled steam types, these experiments were important in looking in detail at the performance, and efficiency of a steam locomotive over a wider range of fuel types. Brown coal and lignites were relatively common in European countries, such as Italy and Germany, where perhaps they were more fully developed.

In Germany, six of the Prussian “G12” Class 2-10-0swere converted to ‘coal-dust burning’ in 1930, but because of the considerable deposits of lignite/brown coal, a much softer coal with a high water content, new ‘coal-dust burning’ locomotives were being built in the 1950s. In the former East Germany, the state railway Deutches Reichsbahn (DR), constructed a pair of 2-8-0s in 1954/5 – the DR Class 25.10. The second of these was designed and fitted for coal-dust firing, and intended for both heavy passenger and goods workings.

Dampflokomotive 58 1894, BR 58

The first coal dust locomotive for Deutsche Reichsbahn (DRG), the former East Germany, with fuel from lignite. The performance was claimed to be significantly higher than a conventionally fired locomotive. The image shows the machine with tender and bunker. Bild 102-11602 / CC-BY-SA 3.0, CC BY-SA 3.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5415387

The initiative started in the early 1920s in Germany, when the state railway organisation brought together the loco builders and the coal industry, and established a business to conduct research on the use of pulverised fuel for firing steam locomotives. This organisation – SLUG (Studiengesellschaft) – introduced the ‘Stug’ system, working with Henschel & Sohn, and at the same time a parallel development was being trialled by AEG. In both cases, the initial work was for stationary boilers. In later years, the system used in East Germany, was ascribed to the GDR’s Hans Wendler, and unsurprisingly known as the Wendler coal-dust firing system, which is the system used on the later DRG 2-10-0s.

Kohlenstaublok 25 1001 (BR 25)

One of the 20 Class 44 2-10-0 locomotives converted to coaldust firing in the 1950s, for work on lines in the Thuringian Forest region. Several of the class have been preserved, but sadly perhaps none of this particular variant.

During the 1950s, coal-dust fired steam locomotives continued to work in Germany, and in East Germany, the DRG converted 20 of the Class 44 2-10-0 heavy freight locomotives, of which almost 2,000 had been built since the 1920s. The system was ultimately replaced – largely due to the complexity of the fuelling system needed – by oil-fired locomotives, which were still in use in Germany in the mid to late 1970s, up until the end of steam traction.

The Southern Railway had built a new class of 2-6-0 locomotives, under its then CME, Richard Maunsell, for passenger duties, with two outside cylinders, weighing in at 110 tons, and developing some 23,000lbs of tractive effort. These new “U” Class moguls included number A629, built in 1928, and fitted with the German design of pulverized fuel system, supplied by AEG. The idea, unsurprisingly, given this was taking place during the great depression of the 1920s and 1930s, was to improve the operating efficiency of the steam engine. The trials took place on the London to Brighton line, and were used as a means of deciding whether it was more economical to convert to the poorer grade of fuels for steam traction, or implement widespread electrification. It was a short lived experiment, and brought to an end following a minor explosion that occurred when the coal dust came into contact with the hot sparks being ejected through the chimney. It was subsequently found that the blast of the steam engine in normal operation was drawing more coal dust/pulverised fuel through the boiler, without being burned.

31629

The experimental “U Class” 2-6-0 in later BR days as No. 31269

The locomotive itself was returned to normal coal burning in 1935, and renumbered 1629, and survived to BR days, and finally withdrawn from service in 1964, as BR No. 31629, and of course the Southern Railway embarked on major electrification schemes.

Another intriguing attempt at using ‘cheaper’ fuel, was to mix the coal dust/pulverised fuel with oil, and described as “colloidal fuel” in some quarters. In fact this too wasn’t a new idea, and had been used in ships during the First World War, when fuel supplies were becoming low. The idea seems to have been useful only where the mixture of oil and pulverised coal could be injected into boiler furnaces through an atomising burner, and the complexities of using such an arrangement on a steam locomotive footplate can only be imagined. Well on Britain’s railways in the 1920s and 1930s perhaps, since normal bituminous coal was readily available.

Curiously, the idea was raised again towards the end of the Second World War, in the UK’s parliament, when this observation was made in Hansard:

Locomotive Fuel - Pulverised Coal

But, in the end, even the UK’s experiments with oil-firing steam traction was not a success, and the increased march and takeover by diesel and electric traction was the death knell for this idea. But, elsewhere, trials and developments continued, including ‘down under’.

Australia – too little too late? As mentioned earlier, a study carried out on behalf of the State Electricity Authority of Victoria looked in great depths at the use of brown coal/lignites for boilers, and including steam locomotives. The work began in the immediate Post Second World War period, and was driven by industrial action on the New South Wales coalfields, and dwindling supplies of hard, black coal, and the coalfields in Victoria were exhausted. To combat this, for the railways, a large number of locomotives were converted to oil-firing, and the experiments with pulverised brown coal began by fitting the 2-8-2 freight locomotive X32 with the necessary ‘Stug’ equipment from Germany.

X32_dynamometer_car

X32, after conversion to PBC firing, on a test train with the VR and South Australian Railways joint stock Dynamometer car. Note plume of steam from the turbine motor on the tender, which drove a conveyor screw and blower to force coal dust into the firebox.          By Victorian Railways photograph – State Library of Victoria, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=23956450

This experiment was a success, and in 1951, the remaining 28 members of the class were converted to coal-dust, or pulverised fuel firing, and even one of the prestigious ‘R Class’ 4-6-4 passenger types – No. R707 was converted. The “R Class” was built by the North British Locomotive Co. in Glasgow, and worked some of Victoria’s prestige, express passenger services.

Whilst the experiments – and indeed operational running with the “X Class” and R707 was a success, time was not on the side of this technology, since dieselisation of Victoria’s rail system was rapidly gaining ground, and in 1957, the decision to abandon ‘coal-dust fired’ steam locomotives was taken. R707 was returned to normal lump coal as fuel, and was rescued and fully restored to operations as a preserved example of a fine class of steam locomotive.

58_1261-5_1 copy

The last of a pair of the ex-Prussian Railways design of 2-10-0 that were rescued for preservation. 25.281 is seen here at Potsdam in 1993.         By MPW57 – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3726331

 

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